Buffalo Breeds

► Nili Ravi

► Azi-Kheli

► Kundhi

Cattle Breeds


► Sahiwal

 Red Sindhi

► Cholistani

► Achai

► Crossbred Animals

► Exotic Breeds

Nili Ravi Buffalo

The hometract of the Nili-Ravi buffalo includes Lahore, Sheikhupura, Faisalabad, Okara, Sahiwal, Pakpattan and Vehari districts of Central Punjab; and Multan and parts of Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts of southern Punjab. However, because of their well-recognized dairy qualities, these animals are now found all over the country. Nili-Ravi buffaloes are in great demand in several other countries as well. Nili and Ravi were recognized as separate breeds until 1960’s when merging of the two breeds was accepted in the form of Nili-Ravi breed.

Physical Characteristics:

  • These buffaloes are massive, somewhat wedge-shaped animals.
  • They are mostly black, but often have white markings on the forehead, face, and muzzle, and lower parts of the legs. Due to which it is called “Panj Kalyan”.
  • The tail switch is often white.
  • They have all curly horns, wall eyes, and a large and strong udder.
  • Males attain maturity at the age of 30 months, and females at 36 months.
  • Average age at first calving is 1390 days
  • Milk yield is 1800-2500 litres per lactation (322 days) with 6.5% butter fat.
  • Adult males weigh 550-650 kg, while females weigh 350-450 Kg.
  • Males may be used for draught purposes, especially for preparing land for paddy cultivation and are a good source of beef.
  • White markings extending above hock and knee and over the neck and body constitute a serious disqualification.  





Kundhi Buffalo


Kundhi buffaloes are found throughout Sindh, particularly on both sides of the Indus river from Kashmore in the north to Shah Bandar in the south on the coast of the Arabian Sea. They are also found in some parts of Balochistan province.

Physical Characteristics:

  • These are massive, jet-black animals.
  • Their horns are broad at the base and taper upward and inward, giving them a fishhook shape, hence the name `Kundhi’.
  • White spots on the body and straight horns are considered undesirable in this breed.
  • They have a broad forehead, short neck, and medium-sized ears.
  • They have large, strong udders.
  • The average age at maturity is 30 months in males and 36 months in females.
  • Adult males weigh 500-600 kg, and females 300-400 kg.
  • The milk yield per lactation is 1700-2200 litres with over 6.5% butter fat.




Azi-Kheli Buffalo

These buffaloes are mainly found in Khwaza Khella and Madyan areas of Swat district about 175 km north east of Peshawar in KPK, but can be found in whole valley of Swat. Azi-Khelies have been named after a local tribe ‘Aziz Khell’.


  • Colour variation in Azi-Kheli is quite pronounced, varying from complete albino animals to piebald to even black.
  • Young animals have normal brownish hair, while hair coat usually becomes scanty and thin in adults.
  • Forehead has a white marking of varying size and can be totally white with a tapering face.
  • Horns are small semi-sickled in shape.
  • The tail is characteristically short and slender.
  • Estimated liveweight is 350 to 450 kg.
  • The udder in lactating animals is fairly developed.
  • Milk yield per lactation is about 1800 litres.
  • Age at first calving is about 45 months with a calving interval of 18 months.
  • Azi‑Kheli buffaloes are generally docile.




Sahiwal Cattle

Sahiwal cattle lives in parts of districts Sahiwal, Okara, Pakpattan, Multan, and Faisalabad in Punjab. The breed is named after Sahiwal district, which is part of its hometract.

Physical Characteristics:

  • This breed is medium-sized, and has a fleshy body.
  • Females have reddish dun colour; males may have a darker colour around the orbit, neck, and hindquarters.
  • Males have stumpy horns; females are often dehorned.
  • Ears are medium-sized and drooping.
  • Skin is loose and fine with a voluminous dewlap and sheath.
  • The hump in the male is massive, but in the female it is nominal.
  • The tail ends in a black switch.
  • The udder is large and strong and occasionally has white patches.
  • This is tick resistant breed because its skin naturally keeps on shivering  
  • Milk yield is 1500-2200 litres per lactation with a fat content of 4.5 %.
  • Adult males weigh 400-500 kg, while females weigh 300 to 350 kg. Males having body weight of more than 1000 kg have also been documented.
  • Average lactation length is 235 days
  • Age at first calving is 45 months
  • Service period is 155 days
  • Dry period is 205 days
  • Calving interval is 440 days
  • Gestation period is 285 days
  • Sahiwals are in great demand in several Asian and African countries. They have also been exported to Australia.



sahiwalm             sahiwalf                         


                     Male                                                                                                  Female

Red Sindhi Cattle


The Red Sindhi breed originates from a mountainous region called `Mahal Kohistan’, spread over parts of Karachi, Thattha and Dadu districts in Sindh. The hometract of this breed extends to the irrigated areas of Hyderabad (Sindh) and the arid plains of Lasbella district in Balochistan.

Physical Characteristics:

  • This is a medium-sized breed with a compact build and red body colour.
  • The Lasbella strain is comparatively darker, and the colour of the bull is likely to be darker at the shoulders.
  • It has a large head with an occasional bulge in the forehead.
  • Horns are thick and stumpy in males but thin in females.
  • Ears are fine and small.
  • The hump is well‑developed in males.
  • The dewlap is moderate in both sexes.
  • The sheath is pendulous in males, but nominal in females.
  • Hind quarters are round and drooping
  • Tail switch is black
  • Udder is medium to large and strong.
  • Red Sindhi animals are hardy and adapt very well to stressful environments.
  • Milk yield per lactation varies from 1200 to 2000 litres
  • Adult males weigh 400-500 kg, while females weigh 300-350 kg.
  • Average lactation length is 265 days
  • Age at first calving is 45 months
  • Service period is 210 days
  • Dry period is 230 days
  • Calving interval is 495 days
  • Gestation period is 288 days


Cholistani Cattle

Cholistan tract (a desert area) and adjoining colonized areas of Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, and Rahimyar Khan districts.

Physical Characteristics:

  • Large-sized flabby animals
  • Horns are small.
  • Ears are long.
  • Hump is well-developed in males
  • Dewlap is large both in male and female
  • White coat with speckled red, brown or black all over the body including head
  • Sheath is pendulous in male
  • Tail ends in black switch.
  • Udder is medium-sized with milk yield varying from 1200 to 1800 litres/lactation
  • Average body weight is 450 to 500 and 350 to 400 kg in male and female animals respectively.
  • Males are a good source of beef and may be used as draught animals
  • Age at first calving is 50 months
  • Service period is 140 days
  • Dry period is 225 days
  • Calving interval is 425 days
  • Gestation period is 285 days


                    Male                                                                                     Female

Achai Cattle

A small-sized breed found in KPK province. The hometract of Achai animals extends on the west to adjoining parts of Afghanistan and on the east to hilly tract of northwestern Punjab.

Physical Characteristics:

  • Predominant colour is reddish brown with white face.
  • Animals of all reddish brown colour with or without white (or spotted) head are also seen. White spots may be seen on the udder, underline, and the legs. Colour of muzzle varies from white to light or dark brown.
  • In females, horns are small and thin, resembling hooks with variable curls and directions, while in males, horns are large, directed upward and forward.
  • The eyes are sharp and bright.
  • Neck is short, especially in males.
  • Switch of tail is generally white, but reddish brown colour is also seen.
  • Tail extends down well below the hock joint with a fluffy switch.
  • The dewlap is quite voluminous in male but less in females.
  • Hump is well developed in male but less in female.
  • Proportionate to body size, the udder is adequately developed with a daily yield of about 4 litres
  • Achai cows can be milked many times a day.
  • Testicles are proportionate to body size.
  • The sheath is fairly tight.
  • Males are reasonably agile and are used for light draft work.
  • Well-fed males serve as good beef animals, especially for sacrificial purposes.
  • Docility is one of the recognized characteristics of Achai animals, even children can comfortably handle them.
  • They are an asset for hilly terrain of the KPK province under resource limited subsistence production set up.

achai-male1 achai-f1-300x224

                     Male                                                                                       Female

Crossbred Animals

Crossbred animals are the combination of two or more breeds. In the process of cross breeding characteristics of two or more good breeds are combined. In Pakistan crossbreeding is recommended for non descript breeds with semen of local high producing breeds like Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sindhi etc. or exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian, Jersey etc. These crossbred animals have more milk production, less calving interval, early age of maturity and more lactation period. period as compared to local animals.

Exotic Breeds


This is an exotic breed and originated from Fries Land in Holland.


  • Frame and carcass is large
  • Body color is white with black patches or white with red patches
  • Calf weighs 90 pounds or more at birth.
  • Mature male weighs 1000 Kg and mature female weighs 550-650 kg.
  • Can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds.
  • First calving age between 24 and 27 months of age.
  • Gestation period approximately nine months.
  • Milk production is 7200-9000 Litres per lactation. Animals with 12000 litres and more per lactation are also found. Range of average daily milk production may be 22-30 Litres. Super milking cows may produce 80-112 liters per day
  • Production period is less due to high volume and stress on udder
  • Face problem with calving due to high pins and narrow ramps
  • Heat tolerance is not well
  • Low fat and protein yield (3.5% fat and 3.15% protein)